Saturday, May 23, 2020

Leadership Styles Democratic Leadership Style - 1045 Words

DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE Erica Easley Ohio University Democratic Leadership Style Leaders are the ones we turn to when life gets to be too much. Good leaders set examples and provide guidance through education (Huber, 2014). As a new nurse I can understand how important it is to have a leader you turn to when you are unsure. Furthermore, in the business of health care we are managing people s lives and one wrong move can be deadly. Therefore, it is important to collaborate with other health care professionals to ensure a safe competent method of delivery. Ideally, the role of a leader in health care is one that is knowledgable, firm, and confident, with the ability to deviate from the plan to assist with an emergency. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to reveal three key behaviors successful leaders exhibit, assess my personal leadership style, referencing theories, while determining an optimal work environment based upon the aforementioned. Leadership Defined According to Huber a leader is a process of influence by which the leader influences others toward goal achievement (2014). With that being said, the role of key leader is null and void without the allegiance of a team. As part of this week’s module we were to complete an assessment to determine the category in which our leadership style mimicked. Furthermore, results determined that the leadership style I possess democratic. Moreover, the democratic style of leadership is primarilyShow MoreRelatedDemocratic Leadership Style980 Words   |  4 PagesDemocratic Leadership Style Democratic leadership style is also referred to as participative leadership. This is because all employees and organizational members have an equal say in the administrative decisions affecting their lives. The style values affirmation and collaboration of members and candidates. Democratic leadership allows equal participation of people in reposing, developing and creating laws. Democratic style can be described as an institutionalized principle because it applies socialRead Moredemocratic leadership style1634 Words   |  7 Pagescourse work: Topic: pros and cons of democracy leadership style and explain why it is the best way to manage firms in contemporary business world 1. Introduction: Thesis statement: leadership style plays a crucial role in a business. It is commonly believed that a democratic leadership style is the most efficient for management. Content: Dr. Stephen R.Convey: â€Å"Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against theRead MoreAutocratic And Democratic Leadership Style883 Words   |  4 Pages(Obiajunwa, 2013). This means project managers may not have the right leadership style or set of skills to effectively manage and complete projects on time. Northhouse (2007) explained three leadership styles authoritarian, democratic and laissez-fair and their influences in his book Introduction to Leadership. Of those three I chose authoritarian and democratic for my research question. Is the authoritarian or democratic leadership style more effective for completing large-scale maintenance projects onRead MoreOutline Of A Democratic Leadership Style1604 Words   |  7 Pagesin a group or team? D.         Different types of group leadership: Which is most effective? E.         How can you enhance group or team meetings? II.        Action Items A.         Does everyone understand the concepts in Lesson 7? B.         Answer any questions about any of the concepts III.      Information Items A.         Comments about concepts B.         Importance of all concepts discussed 2. I would implement a democratic leadership style in my business meeting. This meeting is not a criticalRead MoreDemocratic Style Of Leadership Ideas Essay2004 Words   |  9 PagesDemocratic style of leadership ideas have the ability to move more freely throughout the organization. Team are willing to openly discuss the ideas and the different concepts. In this type of technological environment Democratic style is in my belief the most efficient style available. In this type of leadership every employee’s opinion is up for consideration. In Democratic leadership the ultimate results are prepared by the democratic front-runners where other group associate are asked by themRead MoreLeadership As A Democratic Style Works Best2603 Words   |  11 Pagesresearch on forms of leadership is that a democratic style works best. Explain and evaluate this claim with reference to social psychological theory and evidence. Leadership can be understood as the process of having an individual member of the highest rank within a group lead its members, or is given the ability to do so. In applied social psychology, leadership can split and tied into occupational and political settings, nonetheless some educational applications of leadership in teachers has likewiseRead MoreA Critical Analysis Of Democratic Leadership Style889 Words   |  4 PagesA Critical Analysis of Democratic Leadership Style Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Pà ©rigord, a French, bishop, politician, and diplomat, once stated â€Å"I am more afraid of an army of one-hundred sheep led by a lion than an army of one-hundred lions led by a sheep.† Leadership is defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals (Robbins Judge, 2013). Leadership inside the context of the workplace and the study of organizational behavior has the abilityRead MoreThe Leadership Style Of Laissez Faire, Democratic, And Autocratic Leadership1367 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Leadership is a quality that every nurse can possess. Though, it takes the qualities of vision, passion, integrity, and empowerment to make an excellent nurse leader (Kelly Tazbir, 2014). Anyone can be a leader (Stonehouse, 2011). If you tell that statement to a brand new nurse, she will likely tell you she will not be a leader because she is unsure of her skills. It is important to recognize this and know that leadership evolves with education. The styles of laissez faire, democratic, andRead MoreCompare and Contrast Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Styles910 Words   |  4 PagesAutocratic leadership is a classical leadership style with the following characteristics: manager seeks to make as many decisions as possible, manager seeks to have the most authority and control in decision making, manager seeks to retain responsibility rather than utilise complete delegation , consultation with other colleagues in minimal and decision making becomes a solitary process managers are l ess concerned with investing their own leadership development, and prefer to simply work on the taskRead MoreDemocratic Leadership Style With Your Best Judgment Essay3553 Words   |  15 PagesAccording to me I think I have got Participative (Democratic Leadership) style because I really like to work in a team. Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision-making process. They encourage creativity, and people are often highly engaged in projects and decisions. As a result, team members tend to have high job satisfaction and high productivity. I personally believe that the democratic leadership style should be used by every leader and person

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organisations for information technology professionals Free Essays

string(42) " consequences in higher symbolic capital\." Executive Summary: Whether we like it or non we are all impacted by branding, from the apparels we wear to what we eat, thrust and consume. Although we are familiar with corporate stigmatization and selling, personal stigmatization is a technique where you concentrate on the accomplishments and attributes that make you stand out from the remainder of your equals. In his book â€Å" 7 Habits of extremely effectual people † , Stephen R Covey uses a powerful visual image exercising, where readers are asked to visualize themselves at the funeral of a friend merely to detect that it is their ain funeral. We will write a custom essay sample on Organisations for information technology professionals or any similar topic only for you Order Now He asks readers to believe about what they would desire their household, friends, co-workers and community to state about them at their funeral ( Covey, 1999 ) . I believe that by concentrating on the properties discovered through this exercising I will hold a greater apprehension of my ain personal trade name and besides detect the values at the nucleus of my ain ego. In my assignment I have reviewed literature and articles to place the stairss which could be followed to better personal stigmatization and have so applied these to my ain personal place. I besides circulated a questionnaire to measure consciousness of trade names and to measure my equal ‘s perceptual experience of the trade name â€Å" Paul Delaney † . By concentrating on the perceptual experiences of others, I will place any premises I have about my ain personal trade name and assist happen countries necessitating betterment. As a director taking a squad of nine employees, I must develop a different accomplishment set to accomplish success. This assignment will assist to place accomplishments, personal properties and features that can be developed to heighten my repute and standing amongst my equals. Table of Contentss Introduction 1 What is personal stigmatization? 1 What is Brand Equity? 2 What are the 4 types of capital and how do they associate to me? 3 How can I better my ain personal trade name? 5 Make a Personal Brand Statement 5 Make a Personal Mission Statement 5 Update my sketch 6 Use the â€Å" 5 twelvemonth sketch † technique 6 Join administrations for Information Technology professionals 10 Develop my web of contacts 10 Continue Charity Work 11 Choose an appropriate Leadership Style 12 Develop the 7 wonts of extremely effectual people 14 Personal Branding Survey 17 Introduction 17 Part 1 – Brand Recognition 18 Part 2 – Brand Reputation 19 Part 3 – Appraisal of trade name â€Å" Paul Delaney † 20 Decision 26 Bibliography 31 Appendix 1: Survey on Personal Branding and perceptual experiences of the writer 32 Appendix 2: My Current Resume 43 Appendix 3: My 5 Year Resume 45 Appendix 4: Agenda for the coming hebdomad 47 Introduction What is personal stigmatization? Ad and selling has a important impact on our personal picks from the apparels we wear to the nutrient that we consume. We are invariably having messages from advertizements to carry us to purchase their merchandise over that of a rival. To make this, selling companies strive to tie in their trade name with the values which they believe their client base is interested in ( e.g. doing a merchandise more environmentally friendly etc. ) . Personal stigmatization is a small different in that you are the merchandise being advertised. However, it has many similarities to corporate stigmatization – you want to be associated with the values that you believe do your trade name distinctive ( e.g. strong analytical accomplishments etc. ) . Harmonizing to William Arruda, personal stigmatization is â€Å" cognizing what ‘s reliable to you, distinguishing from your equals and relevant and obliging to your mark audience, and utilizing that to make your ends † ( Martin, 2009 ) . By concentrating on what differentiates you from your equals, you can better your trade name equity. What is Brand Equity? In his article â€Å" Developing your Personal Brand Equity † , Alan Vitberg ( Vitberg, 2010 ) said that personal trade name equity consists of ; The intangible value persons have in footings of ability to act upon others by leveraging their experience, expertness and repute. The relationships they have built and maintained. The touchable value they bring in footings of part to their employer. To better your personal trade name, Vitberg recommends that each individual should get down by replying one inquiry â€Å" What makes you different and why should people care? † and utilize this to construct a personal trade name statement. What are the 4 types of capital and how do they associate to me? In her book â€Å" Pierre Bordieu and Cultural Theory † , Bridget Fowler refers to 4 types of capital ( Fowler, 1997 ) ; Social Capital Social capital relates to the sum of influence and the figure of relationships I have within the web of people I know either socially or professionally. The suggestion is that by increasing the figure of people in my web that I can trust on them to back up me in times of problem ( e.g. such as assisting to happen me a occupation if I am made redundant ) . In bend, I can utilize my web to back up others from my web ( e.g. I found occupation chances for my brother when he was made redundant ) . To increase my web, I have joined the online professional web â€Å" LinkedIn † . I now have over 50 connexions with other professionals with whom I have come into contact. I have besides joined the popular societal networking â€Å" Facebook † to increase my societal web. Symbolic Capital Symbolic capital relates to the grade of repute and honor that I have within my professional and personal life. Respondents in the study completed as portion of this assignment rated me extremely in footings of honestness and trustiness. This is really positive acknowledgment from my equals and one that I am really proud to detect. The 2nd most often identified property that respondents gave in the study was that I was reliable and dependable. Again, this is positive in that it can be argued that holding a repute for being reliable and dependable consequences in higher symbolic capital. You read "Organisations for information technology professionals" in category "Essay examples" Cultural Capital Cultural capital is hard to mensurate, although I have achieved success in the country of educational makings. I was awarded a 1st category honor in my undergraduate grade which distinguishes me from the others in my twelvemonth as merely a smattering of alumnuss achieved this degree of making. Besides, in take parting in the MSc in Business Management in NUI Maynooth I am distinguishing myself from my equals in that lone 3 of the other directors in EBS IT have achieved/are seeking to accomplish a Masters degree making. Economic Capital This facet of Bourdieu ‘s theory relates to ownership of stocks, portions and by and large any pecuniary wagess. I do non have any stocks or portions, but late bought my ain place. I besides have a figure of modest investings. How can I better my ain personal trade name? Make a Personal Brand Statement Based on an article by Alan Vitberg ( Vitberg, 2010 ) , I have created a personal trade name statement. Having a personal trade name statement will assist me to concentrate on the properties and features that define how I want to be perceived. â€Å" I am a diligent and trusty undertaking director with a repute for attending to item and holding strong job work outing accomplishments. I have more than 5 old ages experience in taking a squad of IT professionals from multiple subjects, in presenting successful undertakings for a fiscal services company on clip and within budget † . Make a Personal Mission Statement In his book â€Å" 7 Habits of Highly Effective Peoples † ( Covey, 1999 ) , Covey suggests that should concentrate on what you want to be ( character ) and to make ( parts and accomplishments ) and on the values or rule upon which being and making are based. I have besides drawn from the study in Appendix 1, to detect the properties and accomplishments which I associated with to assist construct this mission statement. By on a regular basis reexamining this mission statement, I hope that it will assist me to maintain focused on the character and values that I deem to be of import. I want to be successful at place foremost, so in my calling, I want to be known for being honest and trustworthy, I want to be known as a just and understanding foreman who can actuate employees, I want to be known for presenting high quality undertakings – on clip and within budget, I want to be seen as more of a risk-taker, I want to be more outgoing and run into more people. Update my sketch Like many people, it has been some clip since I have updated my sketch. To be honest, the last clip I updated my sketch was in 1998 when looking for my current occupation. I will make my ain sketch ( refer to Appendix 2 ) with a focal point on what I have achieved in my calling. Use the â€Å" 5 twelvemonth sketch † technique I have followed the â€Å" 5 twelvemonth sketch † stairss as outlined in an article by Dennis and Ruth Laker in the Journal of Management Education ( Laker and Laker, 2007 ) . In this article they suggest that mapping out where you are now against where you want to be in 5 old ages will forestall calling impetus. As quoted in Laker A ; Laker, Jack Welsh, CEO of General Electric said â€Å" Manage your fate, or person else will † . I believe this quotation mark means that each of us should be proactive and pull off our ain calling to guarantee we achieve what we want to accomplish, be this publicity, work life balance or self betterment. Measure 1 – Make a Current Sketch This measure is complete ; delight mention to Appendix 2 – My Current Resume. Measure 2 – Make a Resume for 5 old ages in the hereafter In this measure I focused on what I would wish my sketch to look like in 5 old ages clip. It includes extra educational accreditations, rank in professional organic structures, occupation rubrics and voluntary activities. Within Appendix 3, I have completed a 5 twelvemonth sketch as outlined in this measure. In their article, Laker A ; Laker suggest that I should get down this measure by inquiring myself a figure of inquiries as set out below ; Question: What do I desire to make in 5 old ages? I would wish a farther 5 old ages experience as an IT Manager along with another 3 old ages as a Senior IT Manager, be that within my current administration or elsewhere. Question: Who has served as your manager? Who would you wish in the following 5 old ages? I have been coached in the field of undertaking direction and proficient expertness by several IT directors. In the coming old ages, I would wish to concentrate on People Management and Financial Management. Question: What farther instruction programs do you hold? I plan on finishing my MSc in Business Management and would wish to prosecute a making in Compliance. Conformity is a growing country in concern and I believe holding a making in this country would farther distinguish me from my equals. Question: What professional administrations would you fall in? Having late joined the Irish Computer Society, I would wish to go to some of their seminars and presentations to construct my apprehension in the field of engineering. Question: What country/county do you desire to populate in? Having late bought a place in the town of Maynooth I will probably stay here for the following 5 old ages, nevertheless in the longer term I would wish to populate in the countryside someplace around Maynooth. Question: What personal involvements will you hold in the following 5 old ages? I would wish to better my public speech production accomplishments and besides to increase my work in the community. I would wish to take part in a community service ( such as Tidy Towns or running a occupants association ) . Measure 3 – Identify Short Term and Long Term Goals Based on the difference between my current sketch and my 5 twelvemonth sketch, my short term ends are ; Get married Complete my MSc in Business Management Derive a farther 5 old ages experience as an IT Manager Seek functions with my current employer that will let me to develop my people direction and fiscal direction accomplishments My longer term ends are ; To volunteer for community strategies such as Maynooth Tidy Towns To volunteer for the occupants association for my country Enrol in the Compliance Officer of Ireland class Measure 4 – Create an Action Plan In 12 months clip – get married ( in May 2011 ) , develop my people direction accomplishments, develop my fiscal direction accomplishments, seek employer part towards finishing my Masters, In 24 months clip – Seek employer part for Compliance makings, develop my public speech production accomplishments In 36 months clip – participate in community strategies such as Maynooth Tidy Towns, participate in my local occupants association In 48 months clip – Measure my sketch and accomplishment set against industry criterions. In 60 months clip – Seek chances to be appointed a senior director. Measure 5 – Reappraisal my action program on a regular basis In measure 5, you are urged to regularly reexamine your Action Plan and your 5 twelvemonth sketch to do certain you are on mark and if non, to set the program as necessary. I plan to put aside clip one time a month to reexamine my sketch, 5 twelvemonth sketch and action program to guarantee all is in order. Join administrations for Information Technology professionals The PriceWaterhouseCoopers â€Å" Personal Branding Week † e-book ( PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2010 ) suggests that you should fall in industry associations to link with other people in your country of expertness. As portion of this assignment I joined the Irish Computer Society ( ICS ) . The ICS is an association of Irish computing machine and engineering professionals that seeks to advance industry criterions and developments. The ICS tally seminars and give presentations which will assist to develop my cognition and apprehension in the field of calculating. I will endeavor to go to as many of these seminars as possible. Develop my web of contacts The PriceWaterhouseCoopers â€Å" Personal Branding Week † e-book ( PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2010 ) suggests that you should make an on-line profile on the professional networking site, LinkedIn. You can happen my profile on the undermentioned nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //ie.linkedin.com/pub/paul-delaney/10/b90/58a I have accumulated 55 professional contacts over the past 3 old ages. I have updated my professional experience and have entered resume information. As I meet new contacts, I add them to my web and maintain in touch to guarantee our relationship stays current and up to day of the month. As yet I have non used this web site to use for occupations or to seek applications for places that become available, although I can see that this will go a larger portion of the web site over the coming old ages. I besides have an online profile on societal networking site â€Å" facebook † and â€Å" Twitter † . I merely began utilizing these sites when I began the MSc in Business Management in NUI Maynooth. I besides plan to take part in my local occupants association and volunteering my clip in community strategies. This will heighten my local repute and help my calling by demoing I take my societal duty earnestly. Continue Charity Work The company I work for, EBS Building Society, has a strong repute of working with charities. Recently members of the IT squad participated in the Movember run to bring forth financess for male prostate malignant neoplastic disease research. I was portion of an international run to â€Å" alter the face of work forces ‘s wellness † by turning a mustache for charity. The EBS Movember squad raised over a‚ ¬21,500, doing us the squad with the highest contributions in Ireland. This is something I will go on to back up in the hereafter. Choose an appropriate Leadership Style In his book, â€Å" Leadership and the One Minute Manager † , Henry Houser recommends that directors should orient their leadings manner depending on the person with whom they are covering ( Houser, 1985 ) . To make this, he recommends that all employees should be graded harmonizing to their competency with the undertaking and their committedness to the occupation. Degree Phase Development Level D4 High Competence / High Commitment Developed D3 High Competence / Variable Commitment D2 Some Competence / Low Commitment D1 Low Competence / High Commitment Developing To help me in my function as a director, I have mapped each employee who reports to me against this theoretical account detailing the employee phase of development and the appropriate leading manner to utilize when covering with them. Employee Degree Phase Leadership Style John D2 Some Competence/Low Committedness Coaching/Direct and Support Martina D2 Some Competence/Low Committedness Coaching/Direct and Support Tom D1/D2 Low Competence/High Committedness Directing/Structure, Control and Supervise Ant D3/D4 High Competence/Variable Committedness Supporting/Praise, Listen and Facilitate Gareth D2/D3 Some Competence/Low Committedness Coaching/Direct and Support Eamonn D2/D3 Some Competence/Low Committedness Coaching/Direct and Support Sheila D3/D2 High Competence/Variable Committedness Supporting/Praise, Listen and Facilitate Jenny D3 High Competence/Variable Committedness Supporting/Praise, Listen and Facilitate Colm D3/D4 High Competence/Variable Committedness Supporting/Praise, Listen and Facilitate Develop the 7 wonts of extremely effectual people In his book â€Å" 7 Habits of Highly Effective Peoples † ( Covey, 1999 ) Stephen R Covey suggests that to be effectual we must follow the following 7 wonts. By going more effectual, I can better my repute and heighten my calling. Although there is a batch of information within the book, I have sought to condense the information into specific action points that I can follow to guarantee I become more effectual ; Habit # 1 – Beryllium proactive In this wont, Covey reminds us that we all have the power to command our responses to a stimulation. We decide how we are traveling to respond to hard state of affairss, in fact Covey states that â€Å" our most hard experiences become the melting pots that forge our character and develop the internal powers, the freedom to manage hard fortunes in the hereafter and inspire others to make so every bit good † . Covey suggests that we should take the enterprise and go proactive in our linguistic communication and actions. For illustration, when you encounter a hard state of affairs do n’t state â€Å" I ca n’t make that because†¦ † alternatively seek utilizing â€Å" What else could I make to decide this state of affairs † . Using this technique with the people who work with me will better their motive and authorise them to do their ain determinations. Habit # 2 – Begin with the terminal in head Although this measure has been covered elsewhere in this assignment, in brief Covey suggests that we should take a minute to see the impact of our actions before taking them. By concentrating on the terminal province that we have in head, we can guarantee that we achieve success. The writer recommends a simple exercising where you conceive of yourself at your ain funeral and place the features you would desire to be remembered for. He so suggests that we should utilize the end product from that exercising to make a personal mission statement. Habit # 3 – Put first things foremost Habit # 3 relates to the things you could make ( that you are n’t making now ) that if you did on a regular footing, would do a enormous positive difference on your personal or professional life. One cardinal facet of Habit # 3 is Time Management. Covey suggests that we should organize undertakings and put to death them around precedences. Urgent Not Urgent Important I Crisiss, Problems A ; Deadlines 2 Prevention, Relationship Building Not Important 3 Breaks, Some phone calls, electronic mails, meetings 4 Trivia, clip wastrels A ; pleasant activities Covey besides suggests that you should construct a agenda of undertakings and that you should take a few proceedingss every twenty-four hours to reexamine your agenda. Within Appendix 4, I have built a agenda for the coming hebdomad. Habit # 4, Think win-win means to come up with solutions to jobs that are reciprocally good. In this circumstance everyone if happy with the determination and is committed to its success. Habit # 5, Seek foremost to understand, so to be understood is where we should seek to understand the job before seeking to decide it. Our inclination is to hotfoot to a solution as we feel force per unit area to decide the job, but it is of import to listen carefully to all sides of the job. Merely so will you decide the issue decently and guarantee that it does non return once more, therefore blowing more of your clip. Habit # 6, Synergise, can be summed up in one statement – â€Å" two caputs are better than one † . You should pool the corporate cognition of all interested parties. The sum sum of everyone ‘s engagement is greater than the sum of each persons input. Everyone solves jobs otherwise and if facilitated right they can come up with successful declarations to jobs. Habit # 7, Sharpen the proverb, is where we should do clip for Physical, Mental, Social/Emotional and Spiritual reclamation. The thought is that we should do clip each twenty-four hours to reexamine what we are making and take a balanced attack. Possibly our clip is non being put to effectual usage? Possibly there is an easier manner to present on your undertakings? Personal Branding Survey Introduction The study was constructed in three parts ; Part 1 relates to trade name acknowledgment where I asked respondents to place five good known trade names and personalities. Part 2 was about trade name repute, where I asked respondents if they believed that six personalities that have had good publicised jobs could retrieve their reputes. Part 3 was about the trade name â€Å" Paul Delaney † where I asked respondents about their perceptual experience of me. Mention to Appendix 1 for farther item. Part 1 – Trade name Recognition In the study I asked respondents if they could place 5 trade names and personalities from images provided. For inquiry # 1, 91 % of respondents right identified Oprah Winfrey as the personality in the image. For inquiry # 2, merely 18 % of respondents right identified Tommy Hilfiger as the personality in the image. However for inquiry # 3, 45 % respondents right identified the Tommy Hilfiger logo from the image provided. This is despite the study being printed in black and white so the coloring material of the logo was non seeable, and besides the â€Å" Tommy Hilfiger † give voicing being removed. -All respondents identified Coca Cola as the trade name in inquiry # 4 – despite the diction in the logo being in Chinese instead than English. About half of all respondents identified Louis Vuitton as the trade name of pocketbooks in inquiry # 5. Part 2 – Brand Reputation In portion two of the study, I investigated if respondents believed that the personalities in inquiry could retrieve their repute following the jobs they encountered in recent old ages. Interestingly, a big figure of the personalities have been accused of rip offing on their spouses but were judged otherwise by respondents as to whether they could retrieve their repute. 91 % of respondents believed that Ronan Keating could retrieve his repute, but merely 40 % believed that Ashley Cole would make similarly. Part 3 – Appraisal of trade name â€Å" Paul Delaney † Appraisal of Paul Delaney ‘s accomplishment set In portion three of the study, I sought to look into how my co-workers perceived my accomplishment set based on visual aspect, frequence of squad and single meetings, listening accomplishments, feedback on public presentation, trust to cover with a grudge, motive, undertaking direction, communicating and deputation accomplishments. From the study I discovered that the overall perceptual experience of my co-workers is good, nevertheless the three countries necessitating most betterment are ; Frequency of Individual Meetings with employees ; Motivational Skills Deputation Skills Properties associated with Paul Delaney The undermentioned seven properties were identified by respondents as those which they would most tie in with Paul Delaney. The highest consequences were returned for Honesty/Trustworthiness and Dependability/Reliability. To me, these are really positive consequences as these are values which essential to my ain personal trade name. From the responses I can see that I have a repute for being organised, but that this mark is non every bit high as I would wish. I will better this country of my professional development over the approaching months. Properties non associated with Paul Delaney In contrast to the properties associated with me, I asked respondents to place the properties which they would non tie in with me. My hope was that respondents would place properties which would non be in line with my values. However, of the 6 highest properties identified by respondents, the lone point I would wish to better is that of risk-taking. It is interesting that 70 % of respondents do non tie in me with being a hazard taker. Skills associated with Paul Delaney When asked to place accomplishments that they believed best described me, respondents identified the following 8 highest hiting accomplishments ; I am really happy with the consequences above. A big portion of my occupation is pull offing undertakings, placing jobs and executing analysis. Skills non associated with Paul Delaney When asked to place accomplishments which would non depict me, respondents identified the undermentioned accomplishments ; I am disappointed with some of the consequences above. It is clear that I need to develop my accomplishments in the countries of Coaching and Establishing thought leading. Although other accomplishments are lower than these, I believe that concentrating on bettering my public presentation in these countries will take to a stronger professional image. Role of Paul Delaney in a squad undertaking The highest per centum of respondents, 55 % , identified the function of â€Å" Project Manager † as the function which I would be in if I were take parting in a group undertaking. This is a positive response as my current calling is mostly focused on being a undertaking director. Decision In decision, I have found the exercisings performed as portion of this assignment to be really good to my ain personal growing and in bend to my ain trade name. Making a mission statement and personal trade name statement has helped me to concentrate on the properties that I would desire to be associated with. I believe that by increasing my web through LinkedIn and fall ining the Irish Computer Society I will be exposed to new and exciting challenges that will farther develop my accomplishments and increase my visibleness in the computer science and fiscal services industries. From the study conducted I discovered a figure of countries which I would wish to better. I believe that by concentrating on these countries I can better my repute and develop the repute of employees describing to me. I believe that I can turn to the countries necessitating betterment by following the stairss outlined below, although it remains to be seen if they will be successful: Increase the frequence of Individual Meetings with employees Although the 73 % of respondents to my inquiry â€Å" Do you believe that one to one meetings are held often plenty? † were happy with the figure of single meetings, there was a important spread in single responses. I will place the employees that feel they would profit from extra meetings and guarantee that clip is allocated to this Non-urgent, but of import undertaking. Better my Motivational Skills In his book, â€Å" Introducing Organization Behaviour A ; Management † ( Knights and Willmott, 2010 ) , Knights A ; Willmott refer to Locke and Latham ‘s theory that claims by puting different public presentation ends I can actuate employees and acquire the persons to execute better. I will try to utilize SMART aims ( Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time edge ) when puting aims. Locke and Latham ‘s theory is based on 4 wide propositions ; Difficult ends lead to higher public presentation The higher the end the higher the public presentation. Praise, feedback or engagement in determination devising makes a difference to what people Goal-setting can besides increase the attempt people make to detect ways of run intoing a end. Better my Delegation Skills In the study, 75 % of respondents were happy with my deputation accomplishments, nevertheless this means that 25 % of employees were non happy. In his book â€Å" Delegating Authority † , Andrew Schwartz ( Schwartz, 1992 ) recommends that when deputing a director should guarantee: Meaningfulness – to guarantee the undertaking is seen as of import, valuable and worthwhile. Responsibility – to guarantee employee takes personal duty and understands that they are accountable for their public presentation on the undertaking. Knowledge of consequences – directors must give feedback on public presentation. Increase my Organisation accomplishments When asked to place 6 properties of Paul Delaney, merely 27 % of respondents identified me as being organised. By utilizing the techniques discovered in Covey ‘s â€Å" 7 Habits of Highly Successful People † ( Covey, 1999 ) I believe that I can heighten my administration accomplishments which in bend will better my repute ( e.g. more frequent squad and single meetings ) . Take more hazards 70 % of respondents identified that Paul Delaney is non known as a Risk-taker. Initially I was happy with this as I am non a risk-taker. However I believe that an component of risk-taking is necessary to be a good director. I will endeavor to take appropriate hazards and to believe of alternate solutions to jobs. I believe that this type of attack to job work outing would promote employees to seek alternate solutions that might be more successful than traditional attacks. Adopt a Coaching attack to employees In their book â€Å" Peopleware, Productive undertakings and squads † ( DeMarco and Lister, 1999 ) , DeMarco and Lister recommend that directors should promote peer-coaching. The suggestion is that you should place a â€Å" instructor † and â€Å" scholar † for a undertaking and set into gesture the transportation of cognition. Over clip, the functions of â€Å" instructor † and â€Å" scholar † will reassign amongst the squad with an overall betterment in public presentation. In fact, this procedure could be done without employees even being cognizant of the coaching being done. Establish thought leading In their book â€Å" Successful Directors Handbook † ( Davis et al. , 1996 ) Davis et al.make some suggestions on how to act upon others. Some of their suggestions are that a director should ; Increase your leading impact – for illustration, ever present yourself to new groups and persons, be steadfast and direct when saying outlooks etc. This is besides recommended in PriceWaterhouseCoopers â€Å" Personal Branding Week † ( PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2010 ) Better your leading by inquiring for feeback. This is besides recommended in PriceWaterhouseCoopers â€Å" Personal Branding Week † ( PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2010 ) Become more self-asserting – be prepared to do your point even if others might differ. This is besides recommended in PriceWaterhouseCoopers â€Å" Personal Branding Week † ( PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2010 ) Fix your arguement taking the place of the other parties into history. Communicate and clear up your vision, show enthusiasm. Influence the determinations of upper direction – be clear about how your suggestion will profit the administration, if the impact of an thought on your country is negative, allow the senior direction know. Better my Communication Skills In his book â€Å" Communication and Knowledge Sharing at Work † ( Cullen, 2008 ) , John Cullen suggests that directors should foremost understand their communicating manner. To make this Cullen outlines a simple exercising to follow. Having completed this exercising I discovered that I am a Directive Communicator ; I meet marks that have been decided by others by using a strong manner of communicating that is chiefly focused on doing certain that instructions are clearly understood and implemented. This communicating manner is appropriate for my current function, nevertheless for publicity I would necessitate to develop a â€Å" Promotional Communicator † manner whereby I would develop the schemes for my section, instead than being an implementor. End Bibliography Appendix 1: Survey on Personal Branding and perceptual experiences of the writer About the respondent ; Are you†¦ ? _ Staff _ Manager _ Other _ Female _ Male Question # 1 – Can you name this well known personality? Answer # 1: Question # 2 – Can you name this well known personality? Answer # 2: Question # 3 – Can you name this well known trade name? Answer # 3: Question # 4 – Can you name this well known trade name? Answer # 4: Question # 5 – Who makes these celebrated bags? Answer # 5: Question # 6 – For each of the undermentioned personalities, do you believe their repute is recoverable or non? _ Recoverable _ Not _ I do n’t cognize who this is _ Recoverable _ Not _ I do n’t cognize who this is _ Recoverable _ Not _ I do n’t cognize who this is _ Recoverable _ Not _ I do n’t cognize who this is _ Recoverable _ Not _ I do n’t cognize who this is _ Recoverable _ Not _ I do n’t cognize who this is Questionnaire about Paul: Deputation Skills How would you rate Paul ‘s deputation accomplishments? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) Communication Skills How would you rate Paul ‘s communicating accomplishments? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) Project Management Skills How would you rate Paul ‘s undertaking direction accomplishments? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) How would you rate Paul ‘s motivational accomplishments? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) Would you rate your trust in Paul to cover with a grudge? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) How would you rate Paul ‘s feedback on your public presentation? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) Listening Skills How would you rate Paul ‘s listening accomplishments? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) Team Meetings Do you believe Team Meetings are held often plenty? ( excessively infrequently ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( frequent plenty ) Individual Meetings Do you believe that one to one meetings are held often plenty? ( excessively infrequently ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( frequent plenty ) Appearance How would you rate Paul ‘s visual aspect? ( Poor ) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 ( Excellent ) Which 6 of these properties would you most associate with Paul? _ Accomplished _ Ambitious _ Bright _ Colourful _ Connected _ Curious _ Spoting _ Easygoing _ Entrepreneurial _ Formal _ Happy _ Inspiring _ Introverted _ Loyal _ Optimistic _ Persuasive _ Positive _ Quirky _ Risk-taking _ Self-motivated _ Sophisticated _ Endeavoring _ Visionary _ Accurate _ Assertive _ Capturing _ Community-oriented _ Conservative _ Reliable _ Dramatic _ Energetic _ Ethical _ Funny _ Healthy _ Intelligent _ Inventive _ Methodical _ Organised _ Physically Fit _ Precise _ Refined _ Sassy _ Shy _ Spirited _ Successful _ Wise _ Adaptive _ Big ( personality ) _ Cheerful _ Competitive _ Converting _ Devoted _ Driven _ Enterprising _ Extroverted _ Generous _ Honest _ Interested _ Sympathetic _ Modest _ Surpassing _ Picky _ Pro-active _ Reliable _ Savvy _ Sincere _ Religious _ Supportive _ Worldly _ Adventurous _ Bold _ Collaborative _ Confident _ Creative _ Diplomatic _ Dynamic _ Enthusiastic _ Flexible _ Giving _ Humble _ International _ Loving _ Motivating _ Passionate _ Political _ Quick Witted _ Religious _ Self assured _ Socially witting _ Strategic _ Trustworthy Which 6 of these properties would you NOT tie in with Paul? _ Accomplished _ Ambitious _ Bright _ Colourful _ Connected _ Curious _ Spoting _ Easygoing _ Entrepreneurial _ Formal _ Happy _ Inspiring _ Introverted _ Loyal _ Optimistic _ Persuasive _ Positive _ Quirky _ Risk-taking _ Self-motivated _ Sophisticated _ Endeavoring _ Visionary _ Accurate _ Assertive _ Capturing _ Community-oriented _ Conservative _ Reliable _ Dramatic _ Energetic _ Ethical _ Funny _ Healthy _ Intelligent _ Inventive _ Methodical _ Organised _ Physically Fit _ Precise _ Refined _ Sassy _ Shy _ Spirited _ Successful _ Wise _ Adaptive _ Big ( personality ) _ Cheerful _ Competitive _ Converting _ Devoted _ Driven _ Enterprising _ Extroverted _ Generous _ Honest _ Interested _ Sympathetic _ Modest _ Surpassing _ Picky _ Pro-active _ Reliable _ Savvy _ Sincere _ Religious _ Supportive _ Worldly _ Adventurous _ Bold _ Collaborative _ Confident _ Creative _ Diplomatic _ Dynamic _ Enthusiastic _ Flexible _ Giving _ Humble _ International _ Loving _ Motivating _ Passionate _ Political _ Quick Witted _ Religious _ Self assured _ Socially witting _ Strategic _ Trustworthy Which 6 of these accomplishments would outdo describe Paul ‘s accomplishments? _ Analysing figures _ Building consensus _ Reding _ Delegating _ Developing thoughts _ Establishing thought-leadership _ Turning professionally _ Inspiring others _ Investigating _ Managing struggle _ Pull offing people _ Measuring success _ Motivating _ Performing analysis _ Public speech production _ Researching _ Sing the inside informations _ Sourcing talent/funds _ Thinking internationally/globally _ Writing studies _ Brainstorming _ Coaching _ Making _ Delivering quantifiable consequences _ Empowering _ Facilitating groups _ Identifying jobs _ Interviewing _ Learning _ Pull offing crises _ Pull offing undertakings _ Interceding _ Negociating _ Showing _ Associating to others/building relationships _ Runing meetings _ Selling _ Teaching _ Training Which 6 of these accomplishments would NOT depict Paul ‘s accomplishments? _ Analysing figures _ Building consensus _ Reding _ Delegating _ Developing thoughts _ Establishing thought-leadership _ Turning professionally _ Inspiring others _ Investigating _ Managing struggle _ Pull offing people _ Measuring success _ Motivating _ Performing analysis _ Public speech production _ Researching _ Sing the inside informations _ Sourcing talent/funds _ Thinking internationally/globally _ Writing studies _ Brainstorming _ Coaching _ Making _ Delivering quantifiable consequences _ Empowering _ Facilitating groups _ Identifying jobs _ Interviewing _ Learning _ Pull offing crises _ Pull offing undertakings _ Interceding _ Negociating _ Showing _ Associating to others/building relationships _ Runing meetings _ Selling _ Teaching _ Training If Paul was take parting in a squad undertaking, in which of the undermentioned functions would he be in? _ Administrator – manages administrative undertakings, responds to inquiries, keeps squad members up to day of the month _ Care giver – ensures that all members of the squad are happy and cared for _ Creator – comes up with originative thoughts for what to make and how to make it _ Doer – takes a part of the undertaking and executes it _ Facilitator – orchestrates the group, assisting it to accomplish its end _ Leader – creates a vision, assembles the squad, takes charge, assigns undertakings, steps progress _ Motivator – inspires others to be their best and successful members of the squad _ Project Manager – manages all facets of the undertaking ( budget, people, agenda etc. ) Beginning: ( Reach_Communications_Consulting, 2009 ) End OF APPENDIX ONE Appendix 2: My Current Resume Name: Paul Delaney Address: 20 The Drive, Newtown Hall, Maynooth, Co. Kildare LinkedIn: hypertext transfer protocol: //ie.linkedin.com/pub/paul-delaney/10/b90/58a electronic mail: delaney_p @ hotmail.com Telephone: 086 834 7529 Experience: IT Manager – East by south Building Society, December 2007 – Present In December 2007 I was appointed to the function of IT Manager with duty for all front-end loaning systems. I am presently working with a squad of 9 developers and concern analysts on a assortment of system alterations to EBS place loan inception systems and branch Teller systems. My function involves pull offing undertakings, people and presenting effectual proficient aid to users throughout the society. Interesting Function: I was IT Project Manager for a major system upgrade to our place loan systems to provide for hazard based pricing which involved a important sum of system alteration and a budget of over a‚ ¬1 million. Skills: Prince II, Project Management, Business Analysis, Systems Analysis, People Management. Technical Skills: Ocular Basic, IBM Business Process Modeller, Websphere, Flex. Team Leader – EBS Building Society, August 1998 – December 2007 I joined EBS Building Society in August 1998 and have worked in a assortment of different functions, including developer, systems analyst and IT undertaking director. Before being appointed director, I was team leader on a squad of 5 developers, focused on back uping, upgrading and keeping the end-to-end place loan inception system. Interesting Functions: I was a cardinal concern analyst on a undertaking to wholly rewrite our subdivision based place loan application system. Skills: Team Leadership, IT Project Management, Business Analysis, Systems Analysis. Technical Skills: Ocular Basic Development, Codebase databases. Education: MSc. in Business Management, Part clip, NUI Maynooth 2010 – 2012 I am presently take parting in a two twelvemonth portion clip Masterss plan in NUI Maynooth and am due to finish the class in August 2012. This plan is for non-business alumnuss wishing to prosecute a calling in concern and direction. We are covering topics such as Strategic Management, Society and Ethics, Financial direction and Pull offing people and squads. BSc. In Calculating Science, Part clip, Griffith College Dublin, 1997 – 2001 I achieved a 1st category honours degree from Griffith College Dublin in 2001. This grade focused on the proficient facets of calculating scientific discipline and gave me a sound foundation in computing machine scheduling and systems analysis. British Computer Society, Certificate in Project Management, 2003 In 2003 I was awarded a Merit in Project Management from the British Computer Society ( BCS ) . This certification is based on industry criterions of undertaking direction ( Prince II ) . Avocations and Interests Playing golf and horticulture Professional Accreditations Member of the Irish Computer Society. Mentions: David Yeates, Head of IT, EBS Building Society Tom Doherty, Ex Head of IT, EBS Building Society, Currently Practice Director, Ergo Software Services End OF APPENDIX TWO Appendix 3: My 5 Year Resume Name: Paul Delaney Address: 20 The Drive, Newtown Hall, Maynooth, Co. Kildare LinkedIn: hypertext transfer protocol: //ie.linkedin.com/pub/paul-delaney/10/b90/58a electronic mail: delaney_p @ hotmail.com Telephone: 086 834 7529 Experience: Senior IT Manager – East by south Building Society, December 2016 – Present In December 2016 I was appointed to the function of Senior IT Manager with duty for all front-end loaning systems. I am presently working with a squad of 20 developers and concern analysts on a assortment of system alterations to EBS place loan inception systems and branch Teller systems. My function involves developing strategic thought in the country of IT and implementing big multi-million euro alteration programmes for the society. Interesting Function: I was Programme Manager for a major alteration in scheme for the society affecting legion concern and IT streams. Skills: Prince II, Project Management, Business Analysis, Systems Analysis, People Management. IT Manager – East by south Building Society, December 2007 – Present In December 2007 I was appointed to the function of IT Manager with duty for all front-end loaning systems. I am presently working with a squad of 9 developers and concern analysts on a assortment of system alterations to EBS place loan inception systems and branch Teller systems. My function involves pull offing undertakings, people and presenting effectual proficient aid to users throughout the society. Interesting Function: I was IT Project Manager for a major system upgrade to our place loan systems to provide for hazard based pricing which involved a important sum of system alteration and a budget of over a‚ ¬1 million. Skills: Prince II, Project Management, Business Analysis, Systems Analysis, People Management. Technical Skills: Ocular Basic, IBM Business Process Modeller, Websphere, Flex. Education: Certificate in Compliance, Institute of Bankers, 2012 – Present I am presently prosecuting a making as a Compliance Officer from the Institute of Bankers. Achieving this making will give me a sound foundation in all countries of Conformity. MSc. in Business Management, Part clip, NUI Maynooth, Sept 2010 – Aug 2012 I late completed a two twelvemonth portion clip Masterss plan in NUI Maynooth and am due to finish the class in August 2012. This plan was for non-business alumnuss wishing to prosecute a calling in concern and direction. We covered topics such as Strategic Management, Society and Ethics, Financial direction and Pull offing people and squads. BSc. In Calculating Science, Part clip, Griffith College Dublin, 1997 – 2001 I achieved a 1st category honours degree from Griffith College Dublin in 2001. This grade focused on the proficient facets of calculating scientific discipline and gave me a sound foundation in computing machine scheduling and systems analysis. British Computer Society, Certificate in Project Management, 2003 In 2003 I was awarded a Merit in Project Management from the British Computer Society ( BCS ) . This certification is based on industry criterions of undertaking direction ( Prince II ) . Avocations and Interests Playing golf and horticulture Chairman of Newtown Hall Residents Association Member – Maynooth Tidy Towns Association Professional Accreditations Member of the Irish Computer Society. How to cite Organisations for information technology professionals, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Free A Separate Peace Separate Peace Essay Example For Students

Free A Separate Peace Separate Peace Essay sA Separate Peace A Separate Peace is a novel by John Knowles that is about prep school experiences during World War II. This book was a good story about an adolescents attempt to understand the world and himself. I enjoyed reading about Genes journey towards maturity and the adult world. This book takes place in Devon School, New Hampshire during a summer session when Gene Forrester was sixteen years old. One day Gene and Finny, his friend and roommate, went to a large tree by the river. Finny suggested that they try and jump from the tree into the river below them. This jump was usually for older boys. But they both made the jump successfully, and Finny formed the Summer Suicide Society, which is dedicated to members being initiated by jumping from the tree to the river. Each time, Gene and Finny must go first, but Gene always has a fear of jumping. Finny always was considered the best athlete in school, and Gene tried to counterbalance by being the best student. After a while of j oining Finnys activities, Gene thinks that Finny is intentionally trying to make him fail out of school. He starts to dislike Finny and his activities, and Gene starts interrupting his schoolwork to jump from the tree more and more often. On one occasion, he thoughtlessly jounces the limb and Finny falls and breaks his leg. Finnys leg is so shattered that he will not be able to play sports again. Gene is scared that Finny will tell that he intentionally pushed him off the tree. After his first visit to the infirmary, Gene realizes that Finny trusts Gene completely and would never accuse Gene. After summer vacation was over, Gene guilty conscience decides to confess to Finny that he had deliberately pushed him out of the tree. Finny refuses to believe his confession, and demands that Gene leave. Autumn session had started and Gene did not try to go out for any sports. Students volunteered to do jobs left from the workers that were sent off to war. Many students enlisted into the army , and Gene was going to do the same until one day he returns to his room and Finny was there. Finny confronts Gene and tells him that he is going to coach him for the 1944 Olympics. Gene explains that sports are not important while the war is going on. Finny will not believe in the war, and feels that he has suffered so much already. Gene is drawn into this belief of peace with Finny, and is not in touch with the reality that is going on. Genes good friend Leper was the first to enlist in the war, which made the war seem more and more unreal since Leper had never been concerned about anything. Leper left after the recruiter came to Devon and showed pictures of the ski troops in action. Later, Gene gets a telegraph from Leper asking for help, and asks Gene to come at once. Gene arrives at Lepers house, Gene tries to humor Leper with jokes, but notices that Leper is too nervous and disturbed. Gene asks him how long he will be home, and Leper says that he has escaped the war. Then Leper gets mad and accuses Gene of thinking of him as not normal. Leper and Gene fight over new army words and Leper says that Gene will soon be trapped. Leper reminds Gene of the time he knocked Finny out of the tree. Gene becomes outraged and calls Lepur a crazy bastard. Then Leper switches moods and begins laughing at the fact that Finny is crippled for life. Gene knocks Leper over in his chair and onto the floor, and his mom comes in and te lls Gene that Leper is ill. Gene tries to leave, but Leper makes him stay for lunch. Gene feels ashamed to accept the invitation for lunch. Back to Finnys fall, some boys from the dormitory come to get Gene and Finny to take them to the assembly hall. They begin asking questions about Finnys broken leg, Finny refuses to answer the questions and bursts out of the room and falls down the stairs and breaks the same leg again. Gene tries to visit Finny in the infirmary but Finny wants nothing to do with him. The following day, Finny wants to know why he pushed him out of the tree. Gene says that it was a blind impulse. That same day, while the doctor is resetting Finnys leg, some marrow gets into his bloodstream and Finny dies instantly. Gene does not cry about his death, and feels that he died with Finny and that he shouldnt cry over ones own death. Gene later comes to the conclusion that war never meant anything to him, that he had fought his own war and had killed his enemy at school . The major conflict in the story is between Gene and Finny. Gene is jealous of Finny because is the best athlete at school and tries to compete with that by being the best student. Eventually, Genes jealousy causes him to jounce the limb while Finny jumps. Gene then becomes aware of his inner self and learns of his true feelings. He realizes that Finny has no hatred or jealously towards him. Another conflict is between Leper and Gene. When Leper decided to enlist in the army, it made Gene think that the war was unreal because Leper was not really in touch with reality. When Gene went to go visit him at his house, they got into a verbal argument, and went off on each other. Leper keeps saying that he has escaped from the war, and Gene doesnt understand what he means by it. Gene is really infuriated with Leper when he blames Gene at the meeting and causes Finny to fall down the stairs, and die. The mock trial, or assembly, was the climax of the story. It was called by some of the boy s at Devon. At the meeting, they tried to get down to what really happened on the tree the day that Finny fell and broke his leg. Fingers started to point at Gene, and Finny could not answer any questions. Finny angrily left the assembly and fell down the stairs, braking the same leg again. While in the process of resetting his knee, some marrow got into his bloodstream and he died. The theme of this novel is Mans Inhumanity to Man. There is a strong relation of this in this novel. The first point is about Finnys tragic fall and how Gene was the cause of it. Support from the story is Finnys desire to jump from the tree. Gene said that he was coming to join him but Finny reminded him about studying. Genes thoughts on the matter were, He had never been jealous of me for a second. Now I knew that there never was and never could have been any rivalry between us, I couldnt stand this. The second support is Genes actions leading to the accident. He took a step toward the trunk, put his kn ees and jounced the limb. Thus, Finny lost his balance and tumbled to the ground. The third support goes back to the scene of the accident after Gene watches Finny fall. And he thinks to himself, It was the first clumsy physical action I had ever seen him make. More less, this is a sign of pride within Gene as he watches the good athlete, Finny fall out of the tree. The second point is on the scene where Brinker brings Finny and Gene to the mock trial to let everyone know the real truth about the cause of the accident. In other words, it was a way of blasting away Gene and shoving his reputation as a respected individual into the ground. Support from the story is when Brinker and three acquaintances come into Gene and Finnys dorm and pull them out. After they entered the Assembly Room, Brinker remarks, You see how Finny limps. This phrase was the beginning of his plan to set the truth loose, or primarily break the friendship link between Finny and Gene. Brinker chose the Assembly Ro om as the setting for this trial since there is nothing humorous about the place. It is a place which would be terrible for Genes sake to talk about the cause of the accident. The second support is Brinkers remark in consociation to the accident. He says to Gene, There is a war on, heres one soldier our side has already lost. Weve got to find out what happened. A powerful remark by Brinker which ignites the trial. This indicates a strong reason for the trial, Brinker uses this tactic to have the truth let out. The truth that will undoubtedly break the strong bond between Finny and Gene. The truth in which will lead to another tragic fall of Finny. The third support is during the trial when Brinker and Gene are talking about the accident. Brinker asks Finny, Have you ever thought that you didnt just fall out of that tree? This inquiry from Brinker sets Finny into a different focus, which will open up the accident, a focus that will narrow it all down to Gene being questioned. These a re the examples of Brinkers inhumanity to let the truth loose. His focus is not on just getting the truth out, but breaking Finny and Genes friendship. The third point is about when Leper calls Gene to visit him in his Vermont home and Gene runs away. This falls under the Mans Inhumanity to Man category because Gene runs from Leper because he cannot face the fact that Leper has gone crazy. The support for this is when Leper tells Gene, You always were the lord of the manor, werent you? This statement is an example of pushing Gene. It gets Gene upset. The next support is Lepers quote to Gene which resulted in Genes physical outburst on Leper. Leper says like the time you knocked Finny out of the tree. This provokes Gene because it is reminding him of his inhumane action to Finny. Thus, resulting in Gene being inhumane to Leper and knocking him out of his chair. The final support is when the scene finally ends. Gene says to Leper, Do you think I want to hear every detail, I dont care what happened to you Leper. This quote from Gene is after Leper explained to him the details of his insanity. Gene cannot hear anymore of Lepers talk about his insanity and runs away. This is the final argument in regards to the involvement of Mans Inhumanity to Man as the theme in the story. Gene Forresters difficult journey towards maturity and the adult world is a main character focus of this novel. Genes journey begins the moment he pushes Finny from the tree and the process continues until he visits the tree fifteen years later. Throughout this time, Gene must become self-aware, face reality and the future, confront his problems, as well as forgive and accept the person that he is. With the jouncing of the limb, Gene realizes his problems and the true person he is inside. Fifteen years later, when revisiting the tree, he finally accepts and forgives himself. This journey is a long and painful one. At the end of this long and winding road filled with ditches, difficulties and pr oblems, Gene emerges a mature adult. Gene jounces the limb and causes Finnys fall and at that moment becomes aware of his inner-self and learns of his true feelings. This revelation comes to him back in his room before he and Finny leave for the tree. It surrounds him with the shock of his true self until he finally reacts by jouncing the limb. Up in the tree, before the two friends are about to make their double-jump, Gene sees Finny in this new light. He realizes that Finny feels no jealousy or hatred towards him and that Finny is indeed perfect in every way. Gene becomes aware that only he is the jealous one. He learns of his animosity and that he really is a savage underneath. Over a long period of time Gene had been denying his feelings of hatred towards Finny, saying that it was normal for him to feel this way. Now all of the feelings come back to him and he sees how terrible he really is. After the realization of the person he truly is, in his room and up in the tree, Gene mu st now confront his problems, face reality, and deal with the future. He must learn that communication is very important in a relationship and that he must express himself instead of keeping his feelings inside, as he had always done with Finny. He must learn to listen to himself rather than to others. These were just a few of the many problems there were in his relationship with Finny. He must face reality and acknowledge the fact that he isnt as great as Finny, that he is his own individual person and that Finny isnt as perfect as he thought. Gene must accept the guilt for Finnys difficulties after his injury and must help Finny as a punishment and act of repentance for his deed. Gene does this by giving a part of himself to Finny as we see with the case of sports throughout the rest of the novel how Gene becomes Finny when it comes to sports. Although the above are all of great importance, the greatest hurdle Gene must overcome is learning to live with what hes done. This painfu l step is the one which will allow him to completely mature. The final stage of Genes maturation is his self-acceptance and self-forgiveness. He has to accept that he isnt perfect and that he, like any other normal being (even Finny), has faults. Accepting that his innocence has been lost helps Gene move on into another part of his life and realize that he can never return to the days of his innocent youth again. He can now become a man, enter the war and adult world and leave his youth behind. Forgiving himself is the step which allows Gene to lead a normal life and enter society. He must finally forgive himself completely for his blind act and allow himself to come in out of the rain. By accepting as well as forgiving the person that he is, Gene enables himself to move on and join the adult world. Alligator EssayGenes maturation is a painful and difficult process that reveals a darker side of Gene that he doesnt necessarily wish to see. However painful, Gene is made a better person during his maturation through his suffering. Through his pain and awful revelations about himself, Gene matures from an insecure child to a self-knowledgeable adult. The significant quote that I chose for A Separate Peace, is when Brinker says to Gene: There is a war on, heres one soldier our side has already lost. Weve got to find out what happened. This remark relates to me because is determining and shows leadership. He is determined to find out what happened and he will do whatever it takes to find out even if he has to break up a friendship. I would have done the same thing. If I had a friend, and he or she was intentionally pushed from a tree because someone was jealous of him or her, I would become angry and agitated until I got to the bottom of it.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Assessing What Students Learn

Assessing What Students Learn Free Online Research Papers ASSESING WHAT STUDENTS LEARN AND HOW IT CAN BE MEASURED IN AN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNE COURSE CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND Assessing student learning outcomes in the advertising campaigns course: What do students learn and how can we measure it? The call for assessment is not new, nor is it a passing academic fad (Boyer, 1990; Maki, 2004, Rowntree, 1987). Accrediting bodies demand to know what our students are learning, while institutions of higher learning face growing political pressure to account for student learning. Evidence of this pressure comes in the form of the Spellings Report, an attempt to provide a comprehensive national strategy for postsecondary education in the United States (Chronicle Review, 2006). What do we think students in advertising programs should learn in our classes? How should we measure what they learn? How can we translate what we discover to improve student-learning opportunities? These are questions that accrediting bodies for journalism and mass communications, Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC) and business, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) ask programs to answer in the accreditation process. Those questions are also asked at institutional levels by regional accrediting bodies and by national associations such as American Association for Higher Education and American Association for Colleges and Universities. In 2004 ACEJMC began requiring programs that ask to be accredited to provide not only a plan for assessment, but evidence demonstrating that results are used to improve curriculum and learning (ACEJMC Web site). Likewise, AACSB requires that â€Å"the school uses well documented systematic processes to develop, monitor, evaluate and revise the substance and delivery of the curricula of degree programs and to assess the impact of the curricula on learning† (AACSB International Eligibility Procedures and Accreditation Standards for Business Accreditation, 2006, p. 15). Maki (2002) and Hersh (2005) make strong arguments that the commitment to assessment should come from within the institution, not from politicians, businessmen or consultants outside the academy. They contend that by taking ownership for accountability through assessment, faculty may be able to avoid the one-size-fits-all No Child Left Behind-style testing regime. More importantly, they add, academicians need to work toward good assessment practices not because they are being forced to do so by institutions and accrediting bodies as an act of accountability, but because it reflects a commitment to learning about learning (personal correspondence Maki, 2006). Assessing student-learning shifts the focus from what instructors teach to what students learn. While this concept has been the topic of conversation in the academy for a while, exactly how to do this and how to measure what students learn haven’t been fully explored with respect to advertising. Jeremy Cohen, former editor of Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, issued a challenge to the academy: â€Å"If assessment is to play a meaningful role . . . it is time to create depth and breadth of understanding of assessment theory and implementation through increased availability of professional quality development† (Cohen, 2004, p. 6). Assessment is particularly challenging for advertising programs because they encompass different disciplines – communication studies, journalism and business – that have different sets of assessment/accreditation criteria. An appropriate place to start with assessment in journalism and mass communications is the capstone course, such as the advertising campaigns class (Rosenberry Vicker, 2006). However, literature regarding assessment of student learning in said courses is sparse. In fact, most studies that have dealt with issues in the advertising campaigns course focused on what skills the industry values (Ganahl, 2003; Benigni Cameron, 1999), students’ attitudes toward grades (Umphrey Fullerton, 2004), and the importance of teamwork (Ahles Bosworth, 2004). However, no studies that we were aware of measure direct and indirect indicators of learning as well as other outcomes of the campaigns course that may benefit students as they develop into advertising professionals. This study will investigate learning outcomes identified by professors and look at student comments about those course objectives. The findings of this study can help advertising educators develop assessment tools for stude nt learning related to competence in understanding and applying the skills and tools of the profession that are beyond the grades students receive. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper is to investigate how educators might define measurable outcomes for advertising campaigns courses to help faculty develop a sustainable plan to evaluate student learning. This paper argues that the appropriate place to start assessing learning for advertising students is the capstone advertising course. It offers a model for teaching and learning that employs several components of an assessment framework offered by Shulman (2007). CHAPTER TWO Literature Review Grading and Assessment Some faculty might argue that they are already â€Å"doing† assessment because they are grading student work. To some extent this is true. However, faculty needs to be careful to make some important distinctions (Cohen, 2004). Grading student work such as papers and exams produces summative evaluations, which means that the work that is generated is measured against specific outcomes designed for the course rather than evaluating information about the learning process. Secondly, according to Cohen, students, not instructors, are accountable for their learning. The power of assessment lies in the feedback that instructors receive to improve learning opportunities. Rather than a summative emphasis, he contends, the focus should be on formative work because grades are not considered to be a valid indicator of the process of learning that occurs in a course. How, then, can faculty systematically evaluate and improve student learning? Do faculty grade what students actually learn or only the assignments they submit? This question is especially perplexing, given the complex, collaborative enterprise that is part of the campaigns course, and will be explored in more depth later in this paper. Professors are often not entirely comfortable with grading (Barnes, 1985), but many use it as their main evaluation tool. Pollio and Beck (2000) found that â€Å"students wished professors were less grade-oriented, while professors wished students were more learning-oriented† (p. 45) In fact, students often â€Å"confuse grades with learning and do not view grades as a snapshot† (Giese, 2005, p. 255). Grades can be important in the advertising/public relations job search after graduation, although employers often look at other factors when making hiring decisions, including experience, level of confidence, and the quality of the applicant ’s portfolio. While professors appear to believe that grades in advertising and public relations courses generally reflect the quality of a student’s course work, they also think that grades are not necessarily an adequate predictor of a student’s potential as employee (Ganahl, 2003). Still, grades can be an important motivating factor, especially for younger, less experienced students (Umphrey Fullerton, 2004). In their study of advertising majors’ attitudes toward grades, Umphrey and Fullerton theorize that older and more experienced students may be less motivated by grades than younger students because they â€Å"notice less of a relationship between the time they spend studying and resultant grades† (p. 45). At the same time, they found that students who held creative positions on campaigns teams were not motivated by grades. Given that the course has a strong creative focus and almost all students enroll in it during their senior year, what other factors might motivate students to succeed in the course, if not the grade? A review of existing literature uncovers some factors that have been considered in the past. While grades are an important assessment tool for summative evaluations such as papers and exams, Cohen states that they are not considered to be a valid indicator of the process of learning that occurs in a course (Cohen, 2004). Shulman (2007) suggests that instead of measuring the learning that occurs in our classrooms by computing a grade based on how well students meet specific course objectives, learning should be measured via multiple measures such as course-embedded assessment. Why Begin Assessment with the Capstone Course? The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU) National Leadership Council (2007) provides support that the culminating experience â€Å"can be structured to show how well students can integrate their knowledge and apply it to complex problems, and students’ level of performance on them can be aggregated and made public.† Rosenberry and Vicker (2006) suggest that it is appropriate to begin assessment with the capstone course in mass communications programs because the culminating experience requires that students integrate and apply knowledge from their majors. The products they generate offer opportunities to reflect on the adequacy of students’ preparation in the program. The culminating experience gives students a chance to synthesize what they have learned during their academic careers and bring coherence and closure to their experience in the major. They suggest further that the capstone experience not only provides a sense of closure, but also one of exploration. Capstone courses push students to extend beyond their present knowledge. Rosenberry and Vicker offer three major themes that emerged from their research on capstone courses: (1) capstones reflect an integration and synthesis of knowledge, (2) they require students to apply knowledge to real-world situations, and (3) they help stu dents make a transition from the classroom to their careers. Other topics they identified include: â€Å"extension of knowledge, opportunities for in-depth study, reinforcement or extension of basic communication competencies, and development of higher-order or critical thinking skills† (Rosenberry Vicker, 2006, p. 270). Interestingly, they identify outcomes that are traditionally thought of as intellectual skills and abilities. Interpersonal skills do not emerge on their list. What should be taught in a campaigns course? A review of literature suggests students learn practical, professional and interpersonal skills (Benigni Cameron, 1999; Ahles Bosworth, 2004). The capstone course in most advertising and public relations programs has a â€Å"real-world† focus, meaning that students work on a campaign that will solve a real life client’s communication problem strategically and creatively. Benigni and Cameron argued the importance of real-world application: â€Å"perhaps the most important function of capstone courses in journalism and mass communications is to prepare students for the real world† (1999, p. 50). They suggest that these â€Å"real world† skills should include communication and planning skills, as well as an ability to base strategic decisions on sound research and theory. The goal of the capstone course is to synthesize skills learned from prerequisite courses in a collaborative learning environment, in which stu dents work in a team environment to create a campaign, they state. In their study, Benigni and Cameron investigated the role that interpersonal dynamics play in a student campaign both internally (within team structure) and externally (with client). They found that two-thirds of campaigns classes used a team approach as class format, with 94% of all presenters being graded on individual as well as team performance. Seventy-three percent of campaigns courses used peer evaluations, while 60% indicated that peer evaluations of other students were reflected in the final grade for those students. They conclude teamwork, therefore, is an important component of the campaigns course. Benigni and Cameron furthermore found that some programs teach about teamwork, team building, and problem solving, and consensus building, but teamwork is not covered in much detail in undergraduate advertising and public relations programs (Ahles Bosworth, 2004). Ahles and Bosworth suggest that effective teams generally earn higher grades and produce a better quality campaign for the client. They found that after students complete the campaigns course, they often have a â€Å"shared vision† of effective teams, characterized by strong work habits and human relations skills, but not necessarily professional skills. Human relations skills included reliability, dedication to the project, and teamwork attitude. Ahles and Bosworth conclude that students may rank human relations skills so high because they think those skills will help them achieve a better grade. Thus, the desire to have these skills is ultimately selfish. In the same study students ranked professional skills, such as advertising and public relations tactical skills, computer skills, and problem-solving skills, lowest. Principles of Assessment Understanding why assessment is needed and how assessment occurs in a cyclical process prepares us to explore what it is that faculty should assess. Lee S. Shulman, president of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, argues that assessment should be viewed essentially as a form of narrative (Shulman, 2007). He states that the story told by assessment is a function of the measurements taken, and those dimensions determine the possible directions the narrative might take. In other words, faculty needs to make clear their rationale for telling a particular narrative rather than alternative stories. What is it that advertising educators want to tell in their assessment story? What are the key indicators that those outcomes are being met that should be measured? Shulman (2007) offers â€Å"Seven Pillars of Assessment for Accountability† that can be used as a framework for developing an assessment plan. Four of them guided our work. 1. Become explicit about the story you need to tell and the rationale for choosing it. The story is driven by accrediting bodies to some extent. ACEJMC stipulates competencies that all graduates in accredited programs should know (see Appendix A for list). Another part of the story could be shaped by national standards for the discipline. The National Academic Committee of the American Advertising Federation (AAF), which is comprised of advertising practitioners and faculty, identified a coherent set of goals for advertising education (personal correspondence, Fullerton, 2007, see Appendix B for list). These competency lists give faculty some tools to use to set the outcomes they want their students to achieve – to create the story they want to tell about their programs. Another option for setting outcomes involves researching academic journals to see what other scholars have identified as important curricular areas for advertising. One direction the narrative could take could reveal how the goals of advertising education might link with goals of the institution’s general or liberal education, as some educators call for examining how learning and research are integrated across disciplinary boundaries (e.g., Gilbert, Schilt Ekland-Olson, 2005; AACU National Leadership Council, 2007). Ganahl, for example, surveyed alumni and faculty about the advertising/PR curriculum, finding those faculties were more supportive than professionals of a strong liberal arts education (2003). It is quite obvious at this point that to try to assess every possible aspect of the course at once is overwhelming, if not impossible. Faculty need not tell an epic story with their assessment. Rather they might conceptualize it as incremental steps over a period of time. This way assessment becomes an on-going activity and evolving story, rather than a snapshot taken just to have something to show an accrediting team. 2. Do not think that there is a â€Å"bottom line.† Once an instrument has been selected to assess a learning outcome (or competency), it is important to recognize what it measures and what it does not. Assessment results should be examined in the context of the particular narrative that is being told. This means that assessment that is focused to find the answer to a specific question cannot be generalized to conclude that assessment is complete or successful with one instrument. Rather, assessment is an on-going process of discovery. 3. Design multiple measures. An array of instruments will help provide a variety of assessment evidence from which to make informed pedagogical decisions. ACEJMC guidelines stipulate that these should include direct and indirect methods. Direct methods require students to demonstrate their learning or produce work that lets others judge whether or not outcomes have been achieved. Examples of direct assessment include a paper or test or evaluation of the campaign by a professional expert. Indirect measures involve asking students their perceptions about what they learned. Asking students, alumni and employers about their satisfaction with a program and measuring their job placement rate are examples of indirect assessment. Direct and indirect measures can be complementary and each tells a different part of the assessment story (Maki, 2004; Walvoord Anderson, 1998). 4. Embed assessment into ongoing instruction. The key here, according to Shulman, is to assess early and often. He suggests that assessment that is employed late in a course or program yields helpful pedagogical information when it’s too late to be of much use to students in that course. He says that assessment should be â€Å"a regular physical exam rather than a public autopsy† (p.6). This calls for what Shulman refers to as bilateral transparency. Progress toward learning outcomes should be accessible to both faculty and students. Shulman’s Seven Pillars of Assessment for Accountability invite a challenge for advertising educators. These pillars can be used to guide assessment that is multiple method, embedded, intentional, and iterative. To summarize, there is a need for strategic, intentional learning that improves as a result of evaluation of curriculum. Based on the assessment literature and specifically Shulman’s recommendations, we developed an assessment model called IDEA (Identification, Development, Evaluation and Application). This model illustrates the Teaching and Learning Cycle that is essential to the development of the overall plan for assessment, while providing a manageable â€Å"roadmap† for faculty to measure and improve student learning. The model suggests that faculty begin the assessment process by identifying and aligning a set of interconnected goals, including institutional, college, departmental, major, and course goals. Then, a qualitative and/or quantitative ins trument should be developed to measure specific learning outcomes that will assess the extent to which these goals were achieved. Next, evidence of student-learning should be collected, analyzed, and evaluated based on the specific goals that were identified at the beginning. The most important step is to apply the findings to improve student-learning. Finally, in order to complete the cycle, it is important to identify and align the various goals again and continue the assessment process. IDEA Model of Teaching and Learning: Taking Shulman’s advice to create bilateral transparency, this study focuses the assessment lens on a perspective that is often neglected: the students’. What is it that they report having learned? How does that match what faculty think they are grading and the course objectives they set? This exploratory study will show how assessment of the campaigns course has been attempted by one advertising program by implementing the IDEA model. In this case, the research questions for this study helped us to assess student learning at the course level. We wanted to investigate whether we teach what we are grading and grade what students are learning: RQ1: In what ways do student comments relate to what they learned in the capstone course match the instructor’s learning objectives for the course? RQ2: How do students rate the extent to which they achieved learning outcomes that include professional guidelines (AAF Principles), accrediting competencies (ACEJMC) and personal expectations? RQ3: What types of learning outcomes do students identify as most important? CHAPTER THREE Methodology Based on our experience working with faculty in our college to help them understand what assessment is and how it can help improve their teaching, two questions arise in almost every discussion: How is assessment different from grading? And, what is the difference between a teaching-objectives approach and a student-centered learning approach? As a result, an assessment method was developed that might offer an example of how faculty members could move from a teaching-objectives approach to a student learning focus, and in the process learn what assessment offers beyond meeting the course objectives. The capstone course, Advertising and Public Relations Campaigns, was the target course for this study as recommended by Rosenberry and Vicker (2006). It is an example of a course where cumulative learning and various other types of learning might be assessed. The purpose of this exploratory sequential mixed methods design was to explore student reflections on learning in the campaigns course with the intent of developing and testing a survey instrument that measures a variety of learning outcomes. The first phase of the study was a qualitative exploration of how students who have completed the advertising campaigns course at a large Midwestern university reflect on what they have learned in the course and how the course objectives match what they say they learned. These initial course objectives had been developed by the course instructors based on the ACEJMC assessment levels of learning (awareness, understanding, and application). After completing the campaigns course, students were asked to reflect on their development throughout the semester, using the course objectives as a guide. A total of 40 written student reflections from three sections were collected and categorized as pertaining to learning outcomes identified in the course ob jectives listed in the syllabus or additional learning outcomes that emerged from student responses. Students mentioned some of the course objectives and also listed things not on the list of objectives in the syllabus. The reason for collecting qualitative data initially is that an instrument needed to be developed that included more than the course objectives developed by the instructors. In the second, quantitative phase of the study, students’ statements and/or quotes from the qualitative data were used to develop an instrument to measure a more accurate list of learning outcomes among students in the campaigns course. In addition, profession related learning goals offered by The American Advertising Federation (AAF) and professional values and competencies listed by the Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC) were added to complete the list. In short, the revised instrument included learning expectations from an accrediting body, a professional group, as well as students themselves. For the quantitative phase of the study a new group of students from three different sections of the next semester’s campaigns course was asked to complete the revised list of learning outcomes by evaluating whether their team achieved the original course objectives and to what extent they, as individuals, achieved the revised list of learning objectives. Students were then asked to list the top three things they learned from the campaigns course. This ranking was added to provide a measure of the importance of the learning objectives. The revised assessment forms were completed by 51 students from three different sections and three different instructors of the campaigns course at the same institution. CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS A qualitative inventory of the responses to the initial form indicated that student comments were made about their learning on all three levels - awareness, understanding and application - and in about equal proportions. However, there were some learning objectives in each of the categories that were not mentioned in the open-ended comments. In addition, there were comments about what was learned that had not been identified by instructors. These additional comments were related to group learning as well as individual learning that had taken place. This finding was deemed by the researchers to be an example of how the professor’s view of what should be learned in a course may not match the students’ view of what they learned in the course. The traditional approach in higher education has been that the professor outlines the learning objectives, teaches to those expectations, and indicates in the grading how well the student has met those objectives. This first step in our investigation offered a reminder that what we teach may not be what students learn, but also made us cognizant that what students learn may be beyond the teaching objectives we set. The student comments related to individual and group learning were incorporated in the next version of the course evaluation form. The consistency of the student responses on the team and individual sections of the revised evaluation form offer evidence of content validity and reliability related to student-oriented learning outcomes. Almost every student indicated â€Å"yes† related to each of the team achievements on the list. Only one person answered â€Å"no† on four of the learning objective statements. There was greater diversity in the individual versus the team evaluations, but most of the students gave themselves a 4 or 5 on the learning outcome statements. On only four of the individual learning objectives did fewer than half of the students give themselves a high â€Å"5†. The following four statements had the lowest means and the highest standard deviations of this group of questions: â€Å"ability to speak in public† (M = 3.53, SD = 1.689), â€Å"developed leadership skills† (M = 4.18, SD = 1.090), â€Å"played mediator between group members† (M = 3.84, SD = 1.405), and â€Å"learned how to write clearly and concisely† (M = 3.96, SD = 1.371). It is possible that those who did not express high agreement with these statements may not have been presenters for the campaign presentation to the client, did not take a leadership role on the team, or did not think that this course was the place they learned to write clearly and concisely. It is also possible that students did not realize that they reinforced their writing skills in the course, even though those skills were not specifically taught in campaigns. We will need to investigate these learning outcome differences to determine if the statement wording needs revision or if the course does not provide everyone with the opportunity to advance in these areas. Qualitative analysis of student comments about the three top things learned in the campaigns course produced three skills categories identified by the students: professional, personal development and interpersonal. Those three categories were developed from 157 items identified by the 51 students in the three sections of the course. Of those, 43% (67) were professional skills related, 34% (53) were about interpersonal relationships and 23% (37) were personal development items. The differences between the three groups of students in number of items in each category were minimal (Professional 23, 23, 21; Interpersonal 20, 19, 14; Personal development 15, 14, 8). Personal development and interpersonal skills comments were categorized based on whether the comment was given in a group or team context or was offered as a statement about self-development. Student comments about professional skills included such things as: presentation skills, evaluation and application of research, strategy development, understanding of entire process, technology needed to produce what was needed, importance of attention to details, how to build a cohesive campaign, near perfection needed for client, and understanding of what it takes to develop a plans book. Interpersonal skills included such items as: team work, client communication, need to share ideas, put differences aside for the welfare of the group, learn to rely on others and let them rely on you, need to compromise in order to succeed, and group communication is important. Statements about personal development items included such things as: learn to accept criticism, keep an open mind, master multi-tasking, think outside the box, learn to take responsibility, don’t take it personally, learn to compromise, learn to handle frustration, time management, patience is key, my ability may be more than I thought, and this experience confirmed that I do love the ad business. The richness of the student comments provided evidence that they can delineate different types of learning emanating from the campaigns experience. One item, time management, was difficult to categorize because it wasn’t always part of a statement related to self, or the group. It was included in the personal development category for this study because it was often used in a personal trait context. However, this is an item that needs to be investigated in more depth. It may be that time management skills could be considered as important for all three categories. What We Learned From Conducting This Exploratory Study Research question 1 asked, â€Å"In what ways do student comments related to what they learned in the capstone course match the instructor’s learning objectives for the course?† We discovered that student comments indicate the instructor’s learning objectives do match their views of what they learned in many cases, but students also report that there are additional types of learning that go beyond what is traditionally measured with grades that are tied to requirements or expectations listed in the syllabus. Research question 2 asked, â€Å"How do students rate the extent to which they achieved learning outcomes that include professional guidelines, accrediting competencies, and personal expectations?† Our findings indicate that students say they generally have met the professional and accrediting expectations in the capstone course as well as the personal expectations. However, we also were able to identify four skill areas where some students indicated the course did not help them meet the learning expectations. This provides information that could help develop changes in the course materials or assignments that might improve learning in those areas. Research question 3 asked, â€Å"What types of learning outcomes do student identify as most important?† Students in the campaigns course were able to help identify three types of learning that came from their class experience. The first type related to professional skills, which are often part of the grading rubric for courses offered in a professional program. Discovery of the other two types of learning – personal development and interpersonal skills – expands our knowledge of what students learn in a course beyond what was listed as learning objectives in the syllabus. It is our hope that the findings of this study might help faculty members understand the importance of developing assessment techniques that measure learning experiences outside and beyond the class assignments that are part of the grading rubric. Perhaps faculty will see that student input and feedback related to learning objectives can help make course instruction more student-centered. Our plan is to refine this method in the campaigns course and then apply it to other courses in the advertising program, as well as the capstone courses for the other majors offered in our college. CHAPTER FIVE Discussion The purpose of this paper was to investigate how educators might define measurable outcomes for a capstone course and to help faculty and administrators develop tools to build a sustainable plan to evaluate student learning. Based on current conventional practices in assessment, accrediting bodies demand that faculty complete the transition from teacher-centered education to learning-outcome accountability. The accrediting process requires that institutions not only create plans and assess student learning, but that they use the information from their activities to demonstrate how learning opportunities are improved as a result. One place to start assessing learning in the advertising major is the culminating experience students get in the capstone campaigns course. This paper offers the IDEA model for assessment of teaching and learning, which starts by identifying and aligning institutional, departmental and course goals. The goal in this example was to assess if we teach what we are grading and if we grade what we are teach what we are grading and if we grade what we are teaching. We then developed an instrument to measure evidence of student learning pertaining to this goal, collected and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data, and demonstrated how we used it to improve student learning. The last step of the IDEA model is to go back and start the cycle again by identifying and aligning goals. This study followed Shulman’s (2007) recommendation that assessment should be bilaterally transparent. Missing from existing literature is a notion that students had input or feedback into creating the learning objectives. This investigation focused the assessment efforts narrowly, exploring how students reflect on whether the course objectives matched their learning, and asking how they rate learning outcomes that include professional and personal expectations. Findings indicated what was expected to a certain extent. Students reported that they believed they learned what the faculty had established for course objectives. Most interesting however, was the notion that the students themselves believed they learned more than the instructors expected. Three themes emerged in the qualitative portion of the study, which categorized students’ responses: professional skills, interpersonal skills and personal development. To the literature about campaigns courses, this study adds the notion that the personal component is an important learning outcome of the campaigns course as identified by students. Overall, this study demonstrates that it is not necessary to assess every element in a program to be informed about certain parts of it. Incremental assessment conducted over time with multiple measures helps give a fuller picture of the learning experience. While this study is an example of an indirect measure of assessment, faculty needs to add to the assessment story with other evaluations of the course, such as critiques by professional panels and reviews by the clients, which directly measure student learning. Completing the assessment cycle, it is important to implement changes based on evidence generated in the process. Faculty has choices to accomplish improvements. To implement what was learned in this particular case, faculty could revise the learning outcomes and reflect that in the grading. One way to apply the findings of this study to the campaigns course would be to incorporate a â€Å"personal development† component into the grading rubric and share it with the students at the beginning of the semester. Grading rubrics are an effective way to articulate expectations to students (Lattuca, 2005). It involves establishing and defining standards that must be met. In this study, the first step is to define â€Å"personal development,† which can be accomplished in a variety of ways. For example, the instructor could provide one by referring to the literature. However, a much more student-centered approach would be to involve students and to ask them to define and reflect on what â€Å"personal development† means in the campaigns course. This could be achieved by implementing an assessment plan similar to the one we presented here. The definition could then become part of the grading rubric and measured by indicating to what extent â€Å"personal development† was achieved by each student. It would be the instructor’s discretion to determine the percentage of the grade that â€Å"personal development† should account for. The grading rubric should be re-evaluated each semester as part of the continuous assessment process. On the other hand, if the instructor does not believe that â€Å"personal development† should be graded, she could simply ask students to reflect on this particular learning outcome and again measure it based on an operational definition as another way to assess what students learn in the course. This study demonstrates that grading is not the same as assessment. We learned that students report learning personal development skills that are not taken into account when grades are given. We now know that an important part of the course includes that dimension. We, as faculty, can choose to integrate it in the grade with rubrics that reflect this component or keep it as a separate ungraded component of the course. The instructors teaching the campaigns course at our institution have incorporated the â€Å"personal development† component in different ways. One has included it in the grading rubric, while another chose to discuss it with students at various points throughout the semester. In both cases, students will be asked at the end of this semester to reflect on this important component, which will again become part of the assessment cycle. Limitations The primary limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. The findings are meant to be an illustration of how one institution has assessed a specific component of the advertising campaigns course. Future Directions As indicated in the IDEA model of teaching and learning, the most important piece of assessment is to view it as an ongoing process. We need to assess student learning systematically over time so that we can continuously improve it. The next step for us is to assess what advertising alumni say they have learned in the capstone course. This will add another chapter to our assessment story because students who have just completed the course but haven’t had any professional experience may not know what they have learned until they are somewhat established in the professional world. References AACU National Leadership Council for Liberal Education America’s Promise. (2007). College Learning for the New Global Century. Washington, DC: Association of American College and Universities. Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC).Retrieved March 17, 2007 from http://www2.ku.edu/~acejmc/PROGRAM/STANDARDS.SHTML#std9 (assessment standard) 2ku.edu/~acejmc/PROGRAM/STANDARDS.SHTML#std2 (competency list) Ahles, C. B. Bosworth, C. C. (2004). The perception and reality of students and workplace teams. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 59 (1), 42-59. Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. (AACSB). Eligibility procedures and accreditation standards for business accreditation. Retrieved March 21, 2007 from (aacsb.edu/accreditation/business/STANDARDS.pdf. Barnes, S. (1985). A study of classroom pupil evaluation: The missing link in teacher education, Journal of Teacher Education, 36, 46-49. Benigni, V. L., Cameron, G. T. (1999). Teaching PR campaigns: The current state of the art. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, (59) 3, 50-60. Boyer, E.L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Chronicle Review (2006, Sept. 1) The Spellings Report, Warts and All. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53 (2). Cohen, J. (2004). Assessment . . . yours, mine, ours. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 59 (1), 3-6. Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ganahl, D. (2003). Evaluating a professional advertising/PR curriculum: Aligning the liberal arts curriculum with professional expectations. Journal of Advertising Education, 7(2), 24-32. Gilbert, L. A., Schilt, P.E., Ekland-Olson, S. (2005). Engaging students: Integrated learning and research across disciplinary boundaries. Liberal Education (Summer/Fall 2005), 44-49. Giese, M. (2005). 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Vicker, L.A. (2006). Capstone courses in mass communication programs. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 61 (3), 267-283. Rowntree, D. (1987). Assessing students: How shall we know them? (2nd ed.) London: Kogan Page. Shulman, L. S. (2007). Counting and recounting: Assessment and the quest for accountability. Change, 39 (1), (carnegiefoundation.org/change/) Umphrey, D., Fullerton, J. (2004). Attitudes toward grades among advertising majors. Journal of Advertising Education (8)1, 39-47. Walvoord, B. E., Anderson, V. J. (1998). Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Appendix A ACEJMC PRINCIPLES OF ACCREDITATION: Professional values and competencies (adopted Sept. 16, 2000) Individual professions in journalism and mass communication may require certain specialized values and competencies. Irrespective of their particular specialization, all graduates should be aware of certain core values and competencies and be able to: Understand and apply First Amendment principles and the law appropriate to professional practice; Demonstrate an understanding of the history and role of professionals and institutions in shaping communications; Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of groups in a global society in relationship to communications; Understand concepts and apply theories in the use and presentation of images and information; Work ethically in pursuit of truth, accuracy, fairness and diversity; Think critically, creatively and independently; Conduct research and evaluate information by methods appropriate to the communications professions in which they work; Write correctly and clearly in forms and styles appropriate for the communications professions, audiences and purposes they serve; Critically evaluate their own work and that of others for accuracy and fairness, clarity, appropriate style and grammatical correctness; Apply basic numerical and statistical concepts; Apply tools and technologies appropriate for the communications professions in which they work Appendix B A Statement of Principles for Advertising Education Programs, National Academic Committee American Advertising Federation (July 2006) 1. Advertising students should know the following: A. The institutions of advertising, their history, and how they relate to each other. B. How advertising is coordinated with marketing and other aspects of a company or organization’s activities. C. Management of the advertising function and personnel in agencies and client organizations. D. A wide range of alternatives for delivering advertising messages and how to use those delivery vehicles. E. The conceptual basis for crafting advertising messages. F. How advertising is regulated. G. Ethical principles for advertising practices. H. Research methodologies appropriate to guiding advertising strategy and evaluating its results. I. An appreciation for the diversity of markets and audiences for whom advertisers create campaigns and messages. J. Critical thinking, written, oral and visual communication, and presentation skills. K. The ability to work with others to solve problems creatively. 2. Instruction in advertising courses should include both theory and practical application, such as the National Student Advertising Competition (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 2). 3. Advertising faculty members should have professional experience relevant to the courses they teach (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 4). 4. Advertising students should be strongly encouraged to gain work experience before graduation through campus media and internships (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 2) 5. Advertising students should be proficient in using equipment and technology they will use in their careers (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 2). 6. Advertising programs should be assessed using multiple measures, which could include: Participation in regional and national competitions, such as the National Student Competition, ADDYs, and competitive internship programs Capstone papers Journals and reflection pieces Focus groups Benchmark measurements (pre-tests/ post-tests of courses and senior year Portfolios of student work Research Papers on Assessing What Students LearnStandardized TestingThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThree Concepts of PsychodynamicInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Project Managment Office SystemIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenHip-Hop is Art